Green-Beckham, a sophomore who led No. 5 Missouri in receptions last season, and the other men were released without formal charges after their arrest late Friday, Springfield police said in a statement.
Green-Beckham, John W. McDaniel and Patrick Prouty, were pulled over late Friday because the vehicle McDaniel was driving had expired license plates, police said. The statement said the officer smelled marijuana in the vehicle and found "approximately a pound of marijuana and assorted drug paraphernalia" in the vehicle.
Green-Beckham, McDaniel and Prouty were booked into the Greene County jail for distribution of a controlled substance. All three were released without bond or charges while the case is investigated.
Missouri spokesman Chad Moller said the school was "aware of the situation and working to learn more."
The 6-foot-6, 225-pound Green-Beckham was considered the top prospect in the nation when he signed a letter of intent with Missouri. He set national prep records of 6,353 career yards receiving and 75 touchdown catches at Springfield Hillcrest High. Last season, he had 59 receptions with a 15-yard average and 12 touchdowns.
In the SEC championship game against Auburn, he caught six passes for 144 yards and two scores.
Green-Beckham was charged in October 2012 with marijuana possession after he and two teammates were reportedly smoking pot in a campus parking lot near Memorial Stadium. All three later pleaded guilty to second-degree trespassing in the case.